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Understand Concussion With its Symptoms and Treatments

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Understand Concussion With its Symptoms and TreatmentsConcussions, despite being called mild, can have serious consequences.

Sometimes concussion is called a “mild” brain injury. It’s not fatal but it can be serious so it’s crucial to know its symptoms and treatments.

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) produced by a bump, blow, or shock to the head or an impact on the body that causes the head and the brain to move rapidly back and forth.

A concussion happens when the head strikes or is struck by an object, or when the brain is shaken against the skull with enough force to cause temporary loss of function in the brain’s higher centers.

After the hit, the injured person may remain aware or temporarily lose consciousness and become disoriented for several minutes.

What happens in a Concussion?

Memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, and muscle coordination can all be affected by a concussion.

Concussion victims frequently experience a brief period of amnesia or forgetfulness, during which they cannot recall what happened just before or after the injury. They may appear perplexed, dizzy, or describe “seeing stars.”

How long does a Concussion last?

Approximately 80% of concussions heal in seven to fourteen days, with a 10-day average.

People who have had a concussion should never return to sports or other strenuous exercise before one week has passed.

Causes

  • The majority of concussions are caused by car accidents and sports injuries. Concussions can occur in car accidents without a direct hit to the head.
  • Instead, concussion happens when the skull abruptly decelerates or stops, jarring the brain against the skull.
  • Football, hockey, and boxing are among the most common sports to result in a concussion.
  • Other prominent causes are bicycle, horseback riding, skiing, and soccer falls, collisions, or blows.
  • Concussion and long-term brain injury are especially dangerous for boxers, as the purpose of the sport is to inflict a concussion on the opponent.
  • As a result, the American Academy of Neurology has urged for a boxing ban.
  • Concussions that occur repeatedly over months or years might result in cumulative head damage.
  • Most boxers’ cumulative brain traumas can result in lifelong brain damage.
  • Multiple hits to the head can result in punch-drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica, as Muhammad Ali’s Parkinson’s disease demonstrates.
  • Concussions in young children are common as a result of falls or collisions on the playground or in the home.
  • Unfortunately, child maltreatment is another major cause of concussion.

Symptoms

Concussion symptoms include the following:

  •  Headache
  •  Confusion
  •  Dizziness
  •  Vacant stare or confused expression
  •  Incoherent or incomprehensible speech
  •  lack of coordination or weakness
  •  Memory loss for the moments just before the impact
  •  Feeling nauseous or vomiting
  •  Seeing two images at once
  •  Hearing a ringing sound in the ears

These sensations can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. More severe or persistent symptoms may suggest a more serious brain injury.

The individual suffering from a concussion may or may not lose consciousness as a result of the hit; if he does lose consciousness, it will only be for a few minutes at most.

Prolonged unconsciousness suggests a more serious brain injury. Concussion severity is rated on a three-point scale and used to guide treatment options.

Grade 1: No loss of consciousness, transitory confusion, or other symptoms that resolve in 15 minutes or less

Grade 2: No loss of consciousness, transitory confusion, or any symptoms lasting more than 15 minutes

Grade 3: Experiencing a loss of consciousness, regardless of the duration

Understand Concussion With its Symptoms and Treatments

Diagnosis

It is critical for people visiting a concussion patient to pay close attention to the person’s symptoms and progression following the accident.

The duration of unconsciousness and degree of confusion are crucial indicators of the severity of the damage and aid in the diagnostic and treatment procedure.

A doctor, nurse, or emergency medical technician may do an initial examination based on the severity of the symptoms, which may include a neurologic exam of the pupils, coordination, and sensation, as well as quick tests of orientation, memory, and focus.

Those with minor concussions may not require hospitalization or costly diagnostic tests.

In more serious cases, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may be required to screen for brain injury.

Several techniques are used to prevent mTBI:

General precautions such as seat belts, airbags, and helmets for high-risk sports.

Encouraging older people to lower their risk of falling by clearing their floors and wearing appropriate shoes.

Using protective equipment and making regulatory changes, such as prohibiting body checking in youth hockey, to prevent athlete concussions.

Secondary prevention for athletes through a Return to Play Protocol.

Using “Head Impact Telemetry System” technology in helmets to analyze injury processes and reduce concussion risk in NFL players.

Educating youth athletes and coaches about concussions using interventions such as pamphlets, films, workshops, and lectures.

Addressing non-disclosure among younger athletes by rule modifications and enforcement in sports, such as banning “head-down tackling” or “spearing,” which is connected with a high injury rate.

Treatment

Adults and children with a suspected concussion should see a doctor or nurse practitioner to confirm the diagnosis and rule out more serious head injuries.

Following the exclusion of life-threatening head injuries, cervical spine injuries, and neurological diseases, and the exclusion of neck or head injuries, surveillance should be continued for several hours.

If you have frequent vomiting, a worsening headache, dizziness, seizure activity, extreme sleepiness, double vision, slurred speech, an unsteady walk, weakness or numbness in your arms or legs, or evidence of a basilar skull fracture, you should go to the emergency room very once.

“Monitoring for worsening illness is an important element of treatment.”

After undergoing assessment at their primary care medical clinic, hospital, or emergency room, individuals may be discharged into the care of a reliable person.

They will be provided with instructions to return if their symptoms worsen or if they experience any “red flag symptoms” such as altered consciousness, seizures, intense headaches, weakness in limbs, vomiting, fresh bleeding, or hearing loss in one or both ears, which could indicate an emergent condition.

Education regarding symptoms, their management, and the usual sequence of events may result in a better outcome.

Medications

Headaches, sleep disorders, and depression may all be treated with medication.

Ibuprofen and other analgesics can be used to treat headaches, but paracetamol (acetaminophen) is preferable to reduce the risk of cerebral bleeding.

Alcohol and other substances that have not been approved by a doctor are not recommended for concussed individuals since they can impair healing.

It has been demonstrated that activation database-guided EEG biofeedback can restore a concussed individual’s memory abilities to levels higher than the control group.

A small percentage of persons who get treatment for mTBI require brain surgery.

KEY TERMS

Amnesia —A memory loss caused by a brain injury, such as a concussion; the loss might be transient or permanent.

Contrecoup injury —An injury, typically involving the brain, in which tissue damage occurs on the opposing side of the trauma.

Parkinson’s disease — A neurological ailment characterized by fine tremors, muscle weakness and rigidity, and a different walking style.

Tinnitus — It is a ringing sensation in the ears that occurs in the absence of external noise sources.

“Educating Ourselves About Concussion, Its Prevention & Symptoms is Crucial to Protect Our Brains.”

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